Many web applications use databases for persistent data storage, and using Object Relational Mapping (ORM) frameworks is a common way to develop such database-backed web applications. Unfortunately, developing efficient ORM applications is challenging, as the ORM framework hides the underlying database query generation and execution. This problem is becoming more severe as these applications need to process an increasingly large amount of persistent data. Recent research has targeted specific aspects of performance problems in ORM applications. However, there has not been any systematic study to identify common performance anti-patterns in real-world such applications, how they affect resulting application performance, and remedies for them. In this paper, we try to answer these questions through a comprehensive study of 12 representative real-world ORM applications. We generalize 9 ORM performance anti-patterns from more than 200 performance issues that we obtain by studying their bug-tracking systems and profiling their latest versions. Based on these anti-patterns, we developed brand new tools to detect and fix the performance issues and evaluated them on these 12 applications and found more than 1000 unknown issues and brought large performance gain.
Tetsuro YamazakiGraduate School of Information Science and Technology, The University of Tokyo, Tomoki NakamaruGraduate School of Information Science and Technology, The University of Tokyo, Shigeru ChibaGraduate School of Information Science and Technology, The University of Tokyo, Kazuhiro IchikawaGraduate School of Information Science and Technology, The University of Tokyo